The computer game, Black and White 2 fulfills the criteria stated by Cameron. The player is guided through creating their own world while completing tasks. The interactivity of the game is that there is no one set way of achieving the tasks, each method fits onto a scale of good to evil. The good/bad choices that are made will affect the world you have created and results in a visible difference in the created world.
Narrative and games are two separate principles that overlap on a lot of ideas so there is no clear line between the two concepts.
Games usually achieve a narrative by guiding the player through a series of stages where they either win and progress or loose and repeat the process until the goal is attained.
Gaming differs from traditional narrative in that when the game is being played it is always in a 'development' phase where an outcome has not yet been decided and so the narrative is always in the present tense.
Ludology is defined as:
the study of games and other forms of play, from the word ludus, Latin for game.
Video games can be considered the next step from traditional narrative as they allow for interaction by the audience.
The importance of studying games, however, is relatively new as it is only recently that the academic value of games has been considered. In Ludology Meets Narratology, Gonzalo Frasca (1991) it is suggested that a reason for this is because gaming is often grouped together with the act of playing, "play activities are associated with children, while games are thought to be more adult activities." This highlights why there is a need to separate the terms play from game.
Frasca continues to define the difference between the terms of play (paidea) and game (ludus), "the player can start, finish or switch to a different activity without exterior warning, conversely," "games are more strictly defined: they have an explicit set of rules, and a defined space of time." What is being said by Frasca is that anyone can play, it is instinctive and does not require any general agreement on boundaries where as when gaming the participant enters into an agreement whereby they must follow the games guidelines.
Daniel Vidart (1995) is cited in Frasca's essay, who states play does consist of rules and is structured, the main difference between it and gaming is that play can finish at any point, which is a point that had previously been picked up by Andre Lalande (1928), quoted in the same essay, "Games have a result, they define a winner and a loser; plays do not."
Narrative in Games
Super Mario 3
The main distinction between games and plays is that games have an established end where there is a definite outcome (win or lose).